Massimo Caliman
by Massimo Caliman
1 min read


  • Programming

Indexed representations based on parent vector arrays and positional vectors both require O(n) space. Parent vector ============= The simplest Let T = (N,A) be a tree with n nodes numbered 0 to n-1 a parent vector is a vector P of size n whose cells contain pairs (info,parent) for each index v belonging to [0,n-1].

p[v].info is the information content of the v node p[v].parent = u iff there is an arc (u,v) in A If instead v is the root p[v].parent=null using the vector of fathers from each node it is possible to trace back in time O(1) to its father while finding a child requires scanning the array in time O(n)

Positional vector

In the special case of complete d-array trees with d>=2, an indexed representation is possible where each node has a fixed position.

Let T=(N,A) d-ary tree, n nodes numerable from 1 to n p vector of size n such that p[v] contains the information associated with node v, and such that the information associated with the i-th child of v is at position p[d*v+i] for i in [0,(d-1)].

For simplicity the 0 position in the array is not used the space required for n nodes is therefore n+1

  • from each v node it is possible to trace back in time O(1) either to its parent (which has index floor ceil v/d if v other than root) or to any of its children
  • for each v node, the father(v) operation can then be done in constant time while the children(v) operation takes time O(degree(v))